There is growing evidence that larger societal and environmental concerns determine health outcomes. (Edelman, Kudzma, &

There is growing evidence that larger societal and environmental concerns determine health outcomes. (Edelman, Kudzma, &
Mandle,2013). Fear is a feeling that comes as result of a perceived danger or threat in the individual, which brings about a change in metabolic and organ functions and a change in behavior. Fear in human beings may occur in response to a stimulus. Studies have shown that fear increases stress in man and most causative factors of diseases is stress.
One of the factors that affect health is our environment,the research explained the plight of the immigrant, they have poor education, low income, and lack of access to healthcare,all the above mentioned problems builds fear in the individual, due to lack of income the individual cannot go to the clinic for a regular blood work or checkup left alone to seek treatment for a current disease condition, this put fear and stress in the individual and increase stress predispose the individual to a lot of disease conditions such as diabetes mellitus.
‘‘Our data mapping demonstrates sharp income disparity between the ID and its surrounding neighborhoods. Moreover, the maps show
this same geographic pattern for a number of other negative social indicators, including low education attainment, high levels of transience, housing vacancies. This suggests that poverty is tied with many other socioeconomic aspects of the community. The same geographic pattern emerges for health issues. Furthermore, our data maps demonstrate that low economic status correlates with high uninsured rates. Because of the economic insecurity, one of the prominent dimensions of fear to emerge during interviews and focus groups was in relation to the financial burden associated with illness.” (Page-Reeves et al., 2013).I agree that structural violence perpetuates health disparity in that from the above information gathered from the research it shows due to poverty they cannot go to the hospital to seek treatment, may not be able to eat healthy and this predispose them to a lot of diseases, whiles those with high income level and education have access to health care, eat healthy,they get preventive care as well as seek early treatment for diseases before they get out of hand and turn to have low rate in diseases such as diabetes, compared to those in the low income level.
Page-Reeves, J., Niforatos, J., Mishra, S., Regino, L., Gingrich, A., & Bulten, J. (2013, Summer 2013). Health disparity and
structural violence: how fear undermines health among immigrants at risk for diabetes. Journal of Health Disparities
Research and Practice, 6, 30-48. Retrieved from
Edelman, C., Kudzma, E., & Mandle, C. (2013).Health Promotion Throughout the Life Span 8th Edition

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